Gestational diabetes is any glucose intolerance disorder that begins or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes develops as a result of changes in metabolism and hormonal management in the body of a woman during pregnancy and recedes when the pregnancy is terminated.
How can I diagnose gestational diabetes?
During pregnancy, when a woman is under the constant care of her gynecologist, she has laboratory tests commissioned by him, which she must systematically perform. Therefore, for abnormalities in blood glucose levels in early pregnancy, the gynaecologist will only order a single blood glucose test. However, since the development of gestational diabetes usually occurs a little later than in the initial period of pregnancy, the basic examination for the diagnosis of possible gestational diabetes is performed a little later, namely between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. What is this study?
This test is called the glucose load screening test (or OGTT 75 g glucose load diagnostic test). This test consists of measuring the level of glucose in the blood of a pregnant woman on an empty stomach, and then after taking a high dose of glucose. In practice, a pregnant woman for the examination must report in the morning on an empty stomach, then she has the first blood drawn by a nurse. After this collection, the woman must drink 75 g of glucose dissolved in a glass of water. It is important not to drink the entire glass in one gulp, but to drink the glucose solution slowly, in small sips.
Since this solution is very sweet, not every woman is able to tolerate such a large sweetness and drinking it can cause her to vomit. Therefore, it is permissible to squeeze half a lemon into the solution. After drinking the glucose solution, the woman must wait for the next blood draw, which is first performed one hour after drinking the glucose solution, and then two hours after drinking the sweet glucose solution. This will help to know how much glucose has increased after consuming a large amount of it, and whether there is a reason for concern and the need for further possible diagnosis.
What oral glucose load values indicate gestational diabetes?
The standards in the OGTT test carried out during pregnancy, which testify to the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, are as follows. Thus, gestational diabetes can be said to occur when fasting glucose exceeds 100 mg / dL, after one hour after drinking the glucose solution, the glucose concentration will be higher than 180 mg / dl, and after two hours it will be higher than 140 mg / dl.
To recognize gestational diabetes, it is enough to perform an oral glucose load test only once, and if its result is incorrect, it will indicate gestational diabetes. In short, the test result does not need to be repeated and verified.
What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?
Usually, a pregnant woman does not have any typical symptoms suggestive of gestational diabetes, but its presence can have an adverse effect on the course of the entire pregnancy and on the fetus. So what negative effects can gestational diabetes have on pregnancy? Gestational diabetes can lead to polyhydramnios, miscarriage or premature birth. In addition, the mother may develop hypertension and symptoms of preeclampsia and pitting. There are also recurrent obstructions of the urinary tract and birth canal, sometimes there may also be an aging of the placenta and the development of its insufficiency.
It should also be remembered that gestational diabetes can have an adverse effect on the newborn. First of all, the newborn of a mother with gestational diabetes can be very large, its birth weight often exceeds its standard values for newborns of healthy mothers. In addition, various types of perinatal injuries, increased perinatal mortality and transient respiratory distress are much more common. In addition, hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia may occasionally occur in the newborn.